Implementation and scale up


Status completed

Start Date

End Date


Methods and metrics for moving from best practice prevention to implementation and scale up

Project title

What is implementation and scale up?

Much scientific evidence has been generated around chronic disease prevention, but many studies are small scale and in selected participants. To improve overall health in Australia, programs which have been proven to work in prevention need to be scaled up to reach larger populations.

How did this project address the issue of implementing prevention research?

This project researched implementation and scale up in the real world. It aimed to enhance the population reach of effective prevention programs, understand more about when implementation happens, and provide methods, frameworks and practice guides for implementing and scaling up evidence-based chronic disease prevention practice (visit the Resources tab on this page).

This project worked with our policy and practitioner partners in five jurisdictions across Australia to develop and test tools to help them assess the feasibility and barriers for scale up. We then applied these tools across several real-world projects. This provided the unique development of pragmatic population health approaches to implementation and scale up (ISU).

Our research and evaluation built on the expertise of the previous Rapid Response Evaluation Capacity of the Prevention Centre. The research used qualitative and quantitative methods and approaches  in the following major thematic areas:

  1. Reviewed progress in scaled up prevention research, and research into understanding the lack of translation in preventive practice; research to inform the concepts, frameworks and models of implementation and scale-up of chronic disease prevention programs
  2. Reviewed available tools and develop and test new scale up methods and tools for use in preventive practice
  3. Conducted and supported scaled up evaluations and assess programs being implemented at scale, working with stakeholders in the design and conduct of the evaluation of their programs
  4. Conducted specific projects with stakeholders.

What is the relevance for policy and practice?

This project improved understanding around scale up methods, barriers to scale up, and allowed new approaches to be implemented.

An essential component of this work was the co-creation of knowledge between researchers and stakeholders from the Prevention Centre’s partner agencies.

Our team supported work in other areas of the Prevention Centre, including implementation research in the health care system, synthesising existing research around scale up, undertaking new work around scale up and dissemination methods, and working with stakeholders to support policy-relevant research.

What are the outcomes?

We have developed and tested tools for policy makers to assess the feasibility of scale up and assess the barriers and potential for scale up. These tools were applied across several projects and are available under the Resources tab on this page. We also contributed to real-world scale up projects across Australia.


Other publications


  • Corbett L, Bohn-Goldbaum E, Crane M, Engelen L. Reporting physical activity in minutes not bouts: Findings from a survey in Australia. 2021 Mar. ANZPHJ.


  • Adrian Bauman, Andrew Milat. Scale up workshop, The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA) conference, Prague, June 2019.
  • Luke Wolfendon. The International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA) conference, Prague, June 2019.
  • Complex program evaluation workshop. International Union for Health Promotion and Education’s World Conference on Health Promotion, Rotorua New Zealand, April 2019.
  • Complex program evaluation workshop. Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, March 2019.


Project team


This project is funded by the NHMRC, Australian Government Department of Health, ACT Health, Cancer Council Australia, NSW Ministry of Health, Wellbeing SA, Tasmanian Department of Health, and VicHealth.